1) What is cataract surgery all about?
Cataract surgery is removal of natural lens which has developed opacification and replaced with intraocular lens.
2) What causes cataract?
Normally natural lens is transparent, as age increases lens becomes lens transparent due to breakdown of lens proteins. Cataract is also caused by diabetes and injury, prolonged exposure to sunlight, long term usage of steroids and some inherited disorders.
3) What are three types of cataract?
Nuclear sclerotic cataract
Posterior subcapsular cataract
4) Are cataracts painful?
Usually cataract does not cause pain except when they are left untreated for long-time, they cause pain, redness, watering and sensitive to light.
5) Is cataract surgery painful?
Cataract surgery is not a painful procedure but the patient may feel apprehensive. To overcome that local anaesthetic block or eye drops are instilled in the eye.
6) Does cataract surgery give you 20/20 vision?
Most of the patients get 20/20 vision after cataract surgery except in condition like previous high refractive errors, diabetes, glaucoma, corneal scars and macular degeneration.
7) Does cataract grow back?
Once cataract is removed it cannot grow back.
8) How fast does cataract grow?
Development of cataract varies, based on individual and other factors. It can vary between the eyes of same individual. Mostly age-related cataract develops slowly. In young individuals cataract develops due to injury, exposure to sun light, in diabetic patients cataract grows rapidly.
9) Is cataract surgery safe?
Cataract surgery is very common and safe surgery. It gives successful outcome except in few conditions like corneal scars, macular degeneration, diabetes and glaucoma.
10) Can you see cataract in the mirror?
Cataract are usually not visible but if they are left untreated for a long-time they look white which can be seen by others or themselves in the mirror.
11) When should cataract be removed?
Cataract removal is advised to patients when there is difficulty in doing daily activities, driving and difficulty in seeing objects.
12) Can you get rid of cataract without surgery?
There is no cure for cataract with medications or home remedies. Once cataract is developed surgery is the only option.
13) What causes a cataract to grow faster?
Cataract grows faster in individuals who had trauma, diabetes, prolonged exposure to sunlight, smoking, radiations and systemic conditions like inflammations and long-term use of steroids and certain medications.
14) What are disadvantages of cataract surgery?
Cataract surgery is safest procedure with high success rate, rarely complications can occur such as infection, left over fragments, lens capsular tear, increased eye pressure, swelling of the retina.
15) What happens if a cataract is left untreated?
If a cataract is not treated it will lead to loss of vision and it affects quality of life. It may also cause secondary complications which will affect the health of the eye. Cataract is the most common cause of blindness.
16) Is it better to have cataract surgery early?
Yes, it is better to have cataract surgery early in immature stage as this reduces the duration of surgery and lessen the recovery time. By early surgery, individual can avoid significant visual impairment associated with mature and hyper mature cataract.
17) How bad does cataract have to be qualifying for surgery?
Surgery can be advised when patient has difficulty in night vision, driving, glare halos, no improvement with glasses.
18) Are floaters a sign of cataract?
No, Floaters are not signs of cataract.
19) How long is recovery after cataract surgery?
Recovery after cataract surgery is short. Any pain redness, discomfort disappears within couple of days. Full recovery may take 2 to 4 weeks. Recovery time varies from person to person depending on patient’s health and immunity.
20) What are two types of cataract surgeries?
Two types of cataract surgeries are:
1. Manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS)
MSICS: Small incision is made with blade and incision is widened to implant the intraocular lens. This is suture less surgery.
2. Phacoemulsification: small incision is giving at the edge of cornea creating an opening through membrane surrounding the lens followed by inserting ultrasonic probe into the opening to break the lens into pieces and removed. Later on, foldable intraocular lens is placed. This incision is very small and recovery is much faster.
21) What is the safest cataract surgery?
Phacoemulsification is the safest cataract surgery as it has small incision, less astigmatism and faster recovery time.
1) What is LASIK?
LASIK is a type of refractive surgery for correction of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Lasik – laser in-situ keratomileusis
2) How long does LASIK outcome last for?
LASIK surgery involves ablation of the cornea or reshaping, which is permanent.
3) Is LASIK permanent?
Yes, LASIK is permanent. LASIK makes permanent changes to cornea.
4) Will I still need glasses after lasik?
No, glasses are not required in most of the cases, as LASIK makes desired refractive changes on the cornea.
5) Can LASIK cure astigmatism?
Lasik can cure astigmatism up to 4.0 D.
6) What age is best to get LASIK eye surgery?
Age is an important factor for LASIK surgery. Patients should be above 20 yrs of age and with stable refractive power for at least 1 year.
7) Who is not suitable for LASIK eye surgery?
Exclusion criteria for LASIK
- Thin corneas
- Active ocular infection
- Dry eye, large pupil,
8) What are the requirements for LASIK?
Detailed examination of the eye is required. Investigations like corneal topography and pachymetry is required to know the corneal thickness and mapping the surface curvature of the cornea.
9) How successful is LASIK for astigmatism?
Lasik can successfully treat astigmatism up to 4.0D
10) Any types/variations in LASIK?
- Topography assisted LASIK.
- Wavefront guided LASIK.
Cornea – FAQs
1. What is Cornea and its functions?
The Cornea is the clear outer layer at the front of the eye. The Cornea helps your eye to focus light so you can see clearly. The Cornea is the crystal clear (transparent) tissue that covers the front of the eye. It works with the lens of the eye to focus images on the retina.
2. What happens if Cornea is damaged?
Any injury to a deeper layer of the Cornea, the healing process takes longer and may result in the following symptoms: blurred vision, pain, redness, sensitivity to light and tearing. More serious injuries will produce Corneal scarring, which can cause distorted vision or even dramatically impaired vision.
3. Can Cornea repair itself?
The Cornea can recover from minor injuries on its own. But, if a scratch causes a deep injury to the Cornea, it will take longer time to heal.
4. What are the five layers of the Cornea?
The Corneal layers include Epithelium, Bowman’s layer, Stroma, Descemet’s membrane, and Endothelium.
5. Can Cornea grow back?
Your Cornea usually heals itself after most minor injuries or infections. But during the healing process, you might notice symptoms like: pain and blurred vision. Any injury to a deeper layer of the Cornea, the healing process takes longer and may result in the following symptoms: blurred vision, pain, redness, sensitivity to light and tearing. More serious injuries will produce Corneal scarring, which can cause distorted vision or even dramatically impaired vision.
6. How does Cornea get oxygen?
Cornea gets oxygen from tears in the form of dissolved oxygen.
7. Can you go blind from corneal abrasion?
Mostly simple abrasion does not cause any major problem unless associated with infection.
8. Why is the Cornea slow to heal?
Minor Corneal abrasions heal quickly, usually within two days. More serious wounds take longer to heal and can cause irritation, pain, tearing, and redness. If the Cornea becomes deeply scarred it can cause vision problems.
9. Can Cornea cause blindness?
Corneal opacities can cause anything from minor irritation to vision problems and even blindness. In fact, Corneal problems are the fourth leading cause of blindness (after glaucoma, cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration).
10. What does scratched Cornea feel like?
Scratched Cornea symptoms might include significant discomforts, red eyes, tearing, blurry vision and sensitivity to light.
11. At what age keratoconus stops?
There is no “real” age at which keratoconus stops progressing. In general it tends to be more aggressive in younger people and slowly progressive in older people.
12. Can Corneal haze be corrected?
It can be corrected by drugs, but sometimes may need surgery.
13. What can cause Corneal damage?
Corneal diseases include keratitis, ocular herpes, Corneal dystrophy, herpes zoster & others can cause damage to Cornea.
14. How painful is a Corneal transplant?
On the day of Cornea transplant, you will either be given a sedative to help you relax and a local anesthetic to numb your eye, or you’ll be put to sleep. Either way, you shouldn’t feel pain after surgery, but you may feel pain for few hours to days depends on the cause of surgery.
15. What happens if Keratoconus is left untreated?
If the Loss of vision due to Keratoconus cannot be treated with glasses, it may need surgery.
16. Can keratoconus reverse itself?
No, but as the age increases progression decreases.
17. Is Keratoconus classified as a disability?
A person is considered to be disabled if the remaining vision in the better eye after best correction is 20/200 or less and in advanced cases keratoconus patient may become disabled but you can avoid by appropriate surgery at appropriate time.
18. Why is my vision suddenly cloudy in one eye?
Blurring of vision in one eye can be due to refractive errors, dry eyes, migraine, optic neuritis, eye trauma, inflammation and vein occlusion.
19. Who is a candidate for Corneal transplant?
Advanced Corneal ulcer, advanced keratoconus, Corneal opacity affecting vision.
20. How do I measure the thickness of my Cornea?
One can measure corneal thickness by Corneal topography, Anterior OCT and pachymetry.
21. Does glaucoma affect the Cornea?
If pressure in eye increases more than 40 mm Hg, then Cornea becomes cloudy leading to decrease in vision.
1) What is usually the first sign of glaucoma?
Raised Intraocular Pressure (IOP) is usually the first sign of glaucoma.
2) Can glaucoma be stopped?
Yes, the progression of glaucoma can be stopped or slowed down with regular eye checkups , adequate treatment and compliance of patient.
3) What is best treatment for glaucoma?
Best and foremost treatment of glaucoma is through medical management i.e, Antiglaucoma medications. Other modes of treatment are Laser procedures, peripheral iridotomy and Incisional surgeries like Trabeculectomy.
4) How long does it take to go blind from glaucoma?
Glaucoma is a slowly progressing disease. It takes years to become blind from glaucoma. However, it depends on present IOP and its variation throughout the course of disease.
5) What is main cause of glaucoma?
Raised IOP causes damage to optic nerve, retinal ganglion cells and its axons, that further causes defective vision.
6) What foods to avoid if you have glaucoma?
Consuming high trans fatty acid diet can result in damaging the optic nerve. Caffeine may cause slight rise in IOP but overall effect on IOP is not significant. Avoid smoking and alcohol.
7) Does stress cause galucoma?
Stress releases cortisol hormone that has negative impact due to autonomous nervous system that leads to sympathetic imbalance and vascular deregulation.
8) What exercise is bad for glaucoma?
Head down positions (sirs asana), prone position cause increase in IOP. Straining (Valsalva maneuver, playing high resistance music instrument, Anaerobic exercises (sit-ups & pullups) cause rise in IOP.
9) Can you live normal life with glaucoma?
Yes, if detected early through regular eye checkups, adequate treatment and follow-up.
10) What does vision look like with glaucoma?
In early stages, vision especially central vision is unaffected in glaucoma. In advanced stages patient will have tunnel vision.
11) What is best natural remedy for glaucoma?
Fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin A and C, green leafy vegetables, sprouts, carrots, spinach, peaches, green beans etc., ginkgo biloba, blueberry, alpha lipo lipoic acid, carotene, etc.,
12) What percentage of glaucoma patients go blind?
Blindness prevalence for all types of glaucoma is >8million, with 4 million cases caused by POAG, glaucoma was theoretically calculating to account for 12.3% of causes of blindness. It is second leading cause of blindness worldwide following cataract.
13) What does a glaucoma person sees?
Sees same as others
14) What age do you usually get glaucoma?
Glaucoma usually starts after 40 years, incidence of glaucoma increases with age as IOP rises with age. Incidence of POAG is greater in older patients with 3 to 8times more in 70’s than in their 40’s.
15) How do you know if your glaucoma is getting worse?
Through regular and timely eye checkups, including IOP, slit lamp examination, disc evaluation and visual field testing.
16) Does high BP cause glaucoma?
No evidence is found that systemic hypertension was associated with raised IOP among Asian Indians (Beaver Dam study)
17) What type of surgery is performed to treat glaucoma?
Laser procedures like peripheral iridotomy and Incisional procedure like Trabeculectomy.
18) Can glaucoma come on suddenly?
Yes, in case of angle closure type of glaucoma that presents sudden onset leading to acute rise of IOP.
19) Can Lasik cause glaucoma?
Long term postoperative use of steroids given after Lasik procedure can cause rise in IOP.
20) Does glaucoma cause tunnel vision?
Yes, in advanced stage of glaucoma, patient will have tunnel vision.
21) How serious is glaucoma?
Glaucoma is chronic slowly progressing disease but if left untreated or
neglected leads to irreversible blindness.
22) What happens if glaucoma is left untreated?
Person may lose total vision and may become blind.
23) Is floater a sign of glaucoma?
No, it is not.
24) What type of glaucoma is most serious?
Angle closure, as it may lead to acute rise in IOP.
25) Can cataracts be mistaken for glaucoma?
Pediatric Ophthalmology – FAQs
1. When should a child shown to a pediatric ophthalmologist?
- Immediately After Birth
- Every year
- Before joining the school
- If there is a problem with the eye yearly checkup
- Decrease in the vision
- Eye infection, conjunctivitis
2. Can a two-year-old have an eye test?
- if any refractive errors,
- allergic infections,
- watering and discharge of the eyes
3. How do you know your child have eye problems?
- Children with defective vision keep the books very close to their eyes while reading or sit close to the television while watching
- Complain headache and blurring of vision
4. Why does my child keep rubbing his eyes?
- Allergic conditions lead to excess eye rubbing and this leads to thinning of cornea and keratoconus.
5. How does too much screen time affect the children eyes?
- Too much screen time can cause digital eye strain, burning sensation, dry eyes, headache and neck pain.
- Distant vision is 6/6 and near visionN6.
6. Why does my child squint his eyes?
- Some children by birth have squint or due to weakness of eye muscles. Can a squint eye be corrected?
- Yes, it can be corrected by surgery and should be done as soon as possible.
7. What causes sudden squint?
- Due to any ocular trauma or head injury or due to nerve paralysis. How do you know if your baby has squint eyes?
- If there is any deviation of the eyes either inward or outward, must be recognized by the parents. In case of doubt consult pediatric ophthalmologist.
8. Is squint eye genetic?
- Yes, If parents have squint… children can also have the squint
9. Can squint eye be treated without surgery?
- Some conditions like accommodative squint can be corrected by glasses
10. What are the most common eye problems in kids?
- Refractive errors, conjunctivitis, eye injury, foreign body in the eye. What is the most common eye infection in the kids?
- Allergic infection
- Bacterial and viral conjunctivitis, squinting of the eye, discharge and watering of the eyes. How do u know if an eye infection is viral or bacterial?
- Watery discharge, lid swelling, redness, fever, lymphadenopathy more seen in viral conjunctivitis.
- Mucoid discharge more seen in bacterial conjunctivitis.
1. What is meant by Oculoplasty?
It is a specific section of ophthalmology, which centres on abnormality of structures around eye.
The surgery of oculoplasty is conducted to develop function, comfort and look for following conditions
- Deals with eye socket difficulties
- Improvement of droopy eyelids
- Tear drainage problem
- Eyelid malposition
- Skin cancers of eyelid
- Eye brow problem
Most of the times, an oculoplasty surgery is best for medical issues related to eyes as well as cosmetic appearance of eyes and surrounding areas.
2. What does an oculoplasty surgeon do?
An Oculoplasty surgeon provides the necessary specialized expertise to deal with specific problems of eyelids and fracture treatment around eyes. This requires a specific expertise as all these structures are close to eye, preserving and maintaining visions is of paramount importance.
3. Is Eyelid surgery safe?
The eye is a sensitive and fragile organ. An operation such as eyelid surgery exposes the eye to number of risks. The safety primarily depends on expertise of surgeon, operational facilities of hospital and extent of disease.
4. Does Eyelid surgery leave Scars?
The incision in sensitive skin near the eyelid, when placed well, will heal quickly and imperceptible.
The scars that result from eyelid surgery are apparent only during the time when eye is either swollen or bruised. This usually happen a few days after surgery. Once the swelling/bruise subsides, the scars begin to heal and become invisible.
If you take adequate care, follow post-operative instructions by doctor, you can expect invisible scars.
5. What is the cost of Eyelid surgery in India?
It Ideally depends on condition that needs to be treated. It can be varied depending on the surgery based on your problem and age.
Cost is quite high for people with long history of eye problem as well as ones with age more than 60 years.
It is cheaper in India compared to other countries. India : Approximately 700 USD
USA : Approximately 2800 USD
UAE : Approximately 4000 USD
6. How do you fix a droopy eyelid?
A number of factors can result in the weakening of eye muscles which leads to sagging upper eyelid or under eye bagginess.
With increasing age, eye muscles get fatigued causing loose folds in eyelids. This loosened skin impairs the vision.
This also results in difficulty while wearing contact lenses.
Eyelid surgery cures droopy eyelids and clears the field of vision.
The procedure aims to remove excess skin, fat, muscles in eyelids. It can be performed on both upper and lower eyelids.
The procedure is popular among women to eliminate tired and old look from their eyes.
7. Does Ptosis go away?
Some cases resolve themselves without treatment and some require medical intervention.
8. What are the symptoms of Ptosis?
- Drooping eyelids (Have difficulty seeing)
- Difficulty closing the eye or blinking.
- Eye fatigue
- Double vision
- Crossed eye
- Tilting their head back in order to see under the eyelid.
Retina – FAQs
1. What is the retina made of?
Ans. Retina is made of multiple layers with different functions, to be precise 9 layers.
2. What causes retina damage?
Ans. Trauma, Diabetes, age related retinal tears & degeneration.
3. Can damaged retina be cured?
Ans. Most of the retinal damages are cured with surgery / intra vitreal injection / laser.
4. What color is the retina?
Ans.Depending on the amount of pigment the shade of orange.
5. What does the retina do for the eye?
Ans. It is the main structure that detects the light coming from the objects & form the image which will be transmitted to the brain.
6. Can stress cause retinal detachment?
7. When should you see a retina specialist?
Ans. Myopes every year (people using glasses from childhood, elderly people crossing 40 years every yearly).
8. Is retinal damage permanent?
Ans. Depends on the type of damage most of the damages can be corrected to some extent.
9. How do I keep my retina healthy?
Ans. Avoiding trauma, eating all kinds of nutritious food.
10. Can you replace your retina?
11. Is there an artificial retina?
12. How much does it cost for retinal detachment surgery?
Ans. Approximately Rs. 55,000.
13. How does a retinal implant work?
Ans. Retinal implants are not fully developed and are still in the experimental stage only.
14. Can high blood pressure cause retinal detachment?
Ans. Blood pressure can cause Retinal damage but not retinal detachment unless there is a vessel block due to B.P which if not treated might progress to Tractional Retinal Detachment.
15. How long does it take for a swollen retina to heal?
Ans. Traumatic berlins edema/ Commotio Retinae resolve within a week to 1 month.
16. Can lack of sleep cause eye floater?
17. What are the symptoms of problems with retina?
Ans. Floater (Black dot floating in front of your eyes)Flashes seeing a random flash in your visual field, diminision of vision.
18. How do I keep my retina healthy?
Ans. Avoiding trauma, eating all kinds of nutritious food.
Dry Eyes – FAQs
Symptoms and causes
Dry eye occurs when there is inadequate tear volume or function resulting in an unstable tear film
The various causes are
- Age related
- Exposure to dry and windy air
- Secondary to diseases like diabetes, thyroid, rheumatoid arthritis
- Long term usage of topical eye drops like anti-glaucoma, anti-allergic eye drops
- Contact lens usage
- Oral drugs like antihistamines, antidepressants, diuretics etc.
- Pregnancy and menstrual disorders due to hormonal disturbances
- Deficiency of vitamin A
- Disorders of eyelids like entropion, lid retraction, proptosis etc.
- Increased digital screen exposure
- Post cataract surgery, post LASIK surgery.
Symptoms depend on the severity of the disease and may vary from person to person, Common symptoms include
- Redness of eyes
- Itching and burning sensation
- Grittiness or foreign body sensation
- Pain and strain in the eyes
- Heaviness of eyes
- Stringy eye discharge
- Blurred vision
Does dry eye go away?
Dry eyes caused due to certain conditions are temporary like contact lens usage, environmental factors. So, by stopping the usage and change of lifestyle dry eye can be treated easily. But mostly dry eye is a chronic condition. With the help of doctor’s advice and by using eye drops, and changes in lifestyle we can treat dry eye.
Can dry eye cause blindness?
Dry eye mainly affects the delicate layer of the eyes i.e the cornea. This may lead to corneal Infection, ulceration and corneal opacity which may cause decreased vision.
How do you permanently treat dry eye?
Lifestyle modification and medications can help in treatment of dry eye.
- Lifestyle modifications like usage of humidifier, taking foods rich in vitamin A, cautious usage of contact lens, decreased digital screen exposure can relieve some symptoms of dry eye.
- Those who use digital screen for long periods should follow the 20/20 rule. For every 20 minutes we need to take rest and look at an object which is 20 feet away for a period of 20 minutes. This may relieve the eye strain.
- Usage of artificial tears. And in severe cases usage of steroid drops and cyclosporine drops. By doing a simple procedure like punctual occlusion we can prevent the tear film drainage and decrease dry eye symptoms.
Can dry eye make cataract worse?
Cataracts cause gradual loss of vision. If the patient also has dry eye, he will be complaining of redness, watering, itching and decreased vision associated with cataract. Usually these two problems are age related and mostly seen in elderly people.
Does cataract make eyes dry?
Cataracts are usually associated with dry eyes. But cataract surgery can cause dry eye due to disturbances in the tear film stability. It is more in case of SICS surgery when compared to phaco surgery. But in most cases, it is temporary and can be treated with medications.
Can dehydration cause dry eye?
Yes, decreased intake of water in the body causes dehydration. It causes dry mouth, dry skin, headache, decreased sweat production, dry eyes and other symptoms.
So, severe dry dehydration causes redness, watering and burning sensation in the eyes – Drink lots of water, intake of ORS, or by taking intravenous fluids we can treat dehydration.
By using artificial tears, we will be able to treat dry eye symptoms.
Implantable Collamer Lens – FAQs
Q. What is Implantable Collamer Lens?
A. It is a biocompatible collamer material, which is blend of polymer & collagen with the purpose of making the lens lighter, hydrophilic & allowing for better exchange of gas & nutrients
Composition consist of 60 % hema, 36 % h2o, 3.8% benzophenone & 0.2%porcine collagen used to treat myopia correction between -3.00sph to -18.00sph diopter power along with toric correction in recent advances.
Q. Is ICL safer than LASIK?
Q. Is ICL surgery painful?
Q. Is ICL reversible?
Q. Can ICL correct astigmatism?
Q. How long does ICL surgery takes?
A.15-20 min for each eye.
Q. Is there a permanent contact lens?
Q. Can you swim after ICL surgery?
Q. Can u fly after ICL surgery?
Q. Which one is better, LASIK or ICL surgery?
A. LASIK is an extraocular surgery which corrects mild to moderate myopia cases.
Whereas ICL is intraocular surgery helps in moderate to high myopia correction.
Less risk of intraocular infection or inflammation with LASIK
Less risk of dry eyes with ICL surgery, thin corneas with high power can prefer ICL surgery.
So, LASIK & ICL surgery has its merits & demerits. Choosing surgery depend upon indications and the advice by the doctor.
Q. How long do u have to be off the work after ICL surgery?
A. Same day or next day patient can start his regular work.
Q. How is ICL surgery done?
A. Under topical anesthesia ICL lens is implanted into anterior chamber and with ICL tucker the four haptics of ICL are tucked under iris into the sulcus without damaging lens capsule.
At the end, viscoelastic substance is washed out & incisions closed.
Q. How long it takes to recover from ICL surgery?
A. After 2-3 hrs of surgery, patient can have visual recovery.
Q. Is ICL better than PRK?
A.ICL is better than PRK in thin corneas, high myopia & severe dry eyes with high myopia.
Q. Which surgery is best for myopia?
A. For mild to moderate myopia LASIK / PRK is better.
For moderate to severe myopia and dry eyes ICL surgery is better.
CORNEAL CROSS LINKING (CCL) OR (CXL) – FAQs
Q. How long does it take to recover from corneal cross linking?
It will take about 2-3 days to recover from symptoms due to light sensitivity. It might take maximum of week.
Q. How effective is cxl?
It is now widely agreed that CXL is only effective treatment for keratoconus to halt the progression. 95% success rate reported in major studies. Few might require re-treatment.
Q. Does cross linking improve vision?
CXL is not a procedure done to improve the vision. It is primarily done to increase the mechanical strength of cornea and slow down the progression.
Q. How much does CXL in keratoconus costs?
CXL for reach eye costs about Rs. 32,000.
Q. Does cross linking stop keratoconus?
Keratoconus usually progresses in 20s and halts by the end of 30. Its progression is observed in early stages. CXL slowdowns the progression in majority of cases.
Q. Can CXL be repeated?
Yes it is possible to repeat CXL after 6 months if needed.
Q. AT what age keratoconus stops?
It is generally considered that keratoconus stops by the age of 40.
Q. What happens if keratoconus is left untreated?
As KERATOCONUS progresses cornea will get thinner and thinner. The thinned bulged cornea leads to low vision often not corrected with spectacles or contact lens. It might even lead to scarring.
Q. How do you slow down keratoconus?
Avoiding rubbing eyes, taking proper treatment for allergic conjunctivitis, regular follow up with ophthalmologist, undergoing CXL when advised will slow down KERATOCONUS and its complications.
Q. What is considered severe keratoconus?
When in keratoconus / corneal thickness <200 K reading> 55.00, present central scars, Refraction is not possible. It is considered severe keratoconus if any one of the above symptoms present.
Q. Does keratoconus get worse over time?
If left untreated keratoconus can progress and get worse. Treatment by CXL halts the progression and prevents worsening of the condition.
Q. How do I know if my Keratoconus is progressing?
Once diagnosed to be a Keratoconus patient, Frequent scheduled review visits to ophthalmologist helps to document progression of Keratoconus through clinical examination, Topography and pachymetry scans. Gradual decrease in vision and frequent change of spectacles should alarm specialist review especially in teenage patients with astigmatism.
Q. Is Keratoconus an autoimmune disease?
No, keratoconus is not an auto immune disorder. It has multifactorial pathogenesis. But it is associated with Auto immune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, Ulcerates colitis, Thyroiditis etc.
Q. What can make keratoconus worse?
Ans: Continuous rubbing of eyes, Noncompliance of allergic conjunctivitis treatment, Improper fitted contact lens, laser refractive surgeries worsen keratoconus.
Q. Can Lasik fix Keratoconus?
No, Lasik / PRK reshape cornea by thinning down the tissue. In keratoconus removing tissue inherently weakens the cornea further which deteriorates the condition.